9.3 kg, 39.3C
Dysuria >7 days. Haematuria. Eats dry food.
Urethral obstruction. Catheter relieved
obstruction. Cystotomy the next day. Owner advised
prescription diet but was not interested. Would
feed home-cooked food.
Dysuria. Haematuria. Fed home-cooked food. Dr
Vanessa said that the catheter could not pass
through and the dog was biting. A prompt X-ray on
a Friday evening and immediate surgery. Dog went
home on Day 3. Dog not so aggressive now. Family
happy with good surgical outcome.
pH=7 (5-8), SG 1.030 (1.005 - 1.030).
Protein +, Blood 4+, WBC 504, RBC 1440, Bacteria
+, Crystals Nil
X-RAY. Small stones seen.
Urea = 7 (4.2 - 6.3)
Creatinine = 61 (89-177)
WBC = 13.6 (6-17) with neutrophils 93%. Absolute
12.6, lymphocytes 6.5%. Absolute 0.88
16.9.11 Cystotomy. Urinary stones removed by Vet 1
STONE ANALYSIS - multiple fragmented uroliths.
CANINE CALCIUM OXALATE
Calcium oxalate monohydrate 100% stone, 5% shell
Calcium oxalate dihydrate 95% shell
Calcium Oxalate Urolith prevention - do urinalysis
If urine SG >1.020 give canned food or add water
If urine pH <6.5, consider diets that produce less
acidic urine eg. u/d or use urinary alkalinizers
eg. K citrate If urine pH>6.5, USG <1.020, no
crystals, repeat urinalysis monthly, then every
Repeat X-ray every 6-12 months to detect Urolith
Repeat urine test and X-rays if signs -
haematuria, pollakiuria, dysuria recur.
For calcium oxalate prevention,
1. Diets promoting urine pH <6.59 were at highest
2. Avoid risk factors like hypercalciuria due to
hypercalcaemia, metabolic acidosis, high sodium
consumption and Vit D excess.
3. Feed canned foods and/or add more water to food
so that urine pH is consistently <6.5.
4. Consider hydrochlorothiazide (2mg/kg q 12 hr)
with highly recurrent urolithiasis in dogs
5. Consider potassium citrate (75mg/kg q 12-24 hr)
if urine pH is consistently <6.5.
pH=9 (5-8), SG 1.025 (1.005 - 1.030)
Protein 2+, Blood 4+, WBC 0, RBC >2250,
+, Crystals Triple phosphate +, Amorphous
X-RAY. 15 stones seen. bladder and behind
Owner declined test.
3.2.12 Cystotomy. Urinary stones removed by Vet 1
STONE ANALYSIS - Sent stones to the lab
This is not a recurrent case of calcium oxalate
urinary stones as the 2nd episode showed struvite
If the owner had done urine tests monthly and
X-ray 3-monthly, the struvite stones will be
detected early and as small stones.
It is easier to remove without the need for
surgery. Either using urohydropropulsion and
sucking out the small stones or S/D diet to
STRUVITE stones are clinically insignificant if
no urinary tract infection as bacteria-forming
urease are required for struvite Urolith formation
In this case, the urine had bacteria and
had high alkaline pH (pH= 9.0)
favouring the urease-producing bacterial growth
and subsequently the production of struvites
(known as triple phosphates).