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Date:   11 April, 2011  
Focus: Small animals - dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs & rabbits
 
Injectable Anaesthestics In Dogs & Cats
Dr Sing Kong Yuen, BVMS (Glasgow), MRCVS
Date:   11 April, 2011  
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Veterinary Education
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Saturday, March 26, 2011

The following tips from fellow vets were given to me at the Veterinary anaesthesia continuing education of Mar 26, 2011 by Dr Kieren Maddern, European Specialist in Veterinary Anaesthesia:

1. INJECTABLE ANAESTHESIA from a practice in Malacca.
According to the vet who runs a practice in Malacca, the UPM professors had been using the following formula safely and effectively for the past 15 years in dogs and cats. He had been using it for the past 10 years.

1.1
Zoletil 100 (don't use the diluent provided).
Add in the bottle 8 ml of ketamine
Add in the bottle 2 ml of xylazine
Dose: 0.04ml/kg IM. 0.03ml/kg very slow IV.
Use isoflurane gas if needed or top up 1/2 to 1/3 dose IM when the dog wakes up.

1.2
Zoletil 50 (don't use the diluent provided).
Add in the bottle 4 ml of ketamine
Add in the bottle 1 ml of xylazine
Dose: 0.04ml/kg IM. 0.03ml/kg very slow IV.
Use isoflurane gas if needed or top up 1/2 to 1/3 dose IM when the dog wakes up.
 
1.3 For CATS
Be careful. Use the IV dosage for IM injection. That is 0.093 ml/kg for IM.
Top up if necessary.

Zoletil is an expensive drug and therefore the above combinations is less expensive and effective and safer.


2.  Dr Kieren Maddern's tips
Ketamine & ACP - excellent for cats. Ketamine alone makes the cat's body rigid. Seldom use atropine (makes throat dry).

3. A Singapore's vet's tips
Xylazine + Atropine + Ketamine. Then use isoflurane gas. Once  he used nitrous oxide, the dog died.

Each vet has is own method.  Therefore vets stick to what has been successful in the past. 


Sunday, April 10, 2011

Injectable Anaesthetics For Cats

Below are guidelines for vets who don't have gas anaesthetic machines
e.g. animal shelter work in the field and cost considerations. Zoletil, Domitor and isoflurane are costly.

CATS
1. XYLAZINE + ZOLETIL ANAESTHESIA

5 kg
Xylazine 0.1 ml + Zoletil 100 0.1 ml in one syringe IM
If insufficient, top up with Zoletil 0.01 ml IV to effect.
 
In one case of a 5kg male
cat, I topped up with Zoletil 100 at 0.05 ml + 0.1 ml saline IV after 10 minutes of the xylazine 0.1 ml + Zoletil 0.1 ml IM combination. Effective analgesia for neuter.

2. XYLAZINE + KETAMINE
3-4 kg
Xylazine 0.1 ml + Ketamine 0.4 ml in one syringe IM. If insufficient, top up with Zoletil 0.01 ml IV to effect.
For cats 4-6 kg, double the above dosage IM.

I use this xylazine:ketamine combination formula frequently for spay and neuter of cats without problems. Duration of anaesthesia is half an hour. I find that xylazine 0.15 ml + ketamine 0.6 ml in one syringe IM is sufficient for cats around 4 kg. The cat sleeps over half an hour.

If IV is needed, consider the cat's femoral vein if the cephalic vein is too small.

3. DOMITOR + XYLAZINE
Domitor 0.1 ml + Xylazine 0.1 ml in one syringe IM.
If insufficient, top up with Zoletil 0.01 ml IV to effect. Domitor is expensive for stray cat spays.
I have not used this before.

4. IF USED ALONE, adverse effects are as follows:
1. Insufficient analgesia. Needs to top up IV.
2. Salivation and legs rigid (ketamine IM)
3. Wakes up fast
Combined with xylazine will make the cat sleep longer.

There are many combinations in practice and each vet has his own favourite combination used safely and with great efficacy.

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